Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

Ask a well-received question on 30 separate days, and maintain a positive question record
3 awarded
Question favorited by 25 users
35 awarded
Question score of 25 or more
89 awarded
Question with 2,500 views
63 awarded

Answer Badges

First to answer and accepted with score of 10 or more
12 awarded
Edit and answer 50 questions (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
1 awarded
Provide non-wiki answers of 15 total score in 20 of top 40 tags
Accepted answer and score of 40 or more
Answer score of 25 or more
6 awarded
Answer a question more than 60 days later with score of 5 or more
65 awarded
Zero score accepted answers: more than 5 and 20% of total
1 awarded

Participation Badges

Vote for a candidate in the final phase of an election
Leave 10 comments with score of 5 or more
1 awarded
Visit the site each day for 30 consecutive days. (Days are counted in UTC.)
148 awarded
Earn 200 daily reputation 50 times
10 posts with score of 2 on meta
Post 10 messages in chat starred by 10 different users
Active member for a year, earning at least 200 reputation
761 awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 400 in at least 80 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
1 awarded

Moderation Badges

Raise 80 helpful flags
1 awarded
Vote 300 or more times
8 awarded
Complete at least 250 review tasks. This badge is awarded once per review type
1 awarded
Edit 80 posts
3 awarded
Edit 100 posts that were inactive for 6 months
Up vote 100 answers on questions where an answer of yours has a positive score
Edit 50 tag wikis
Create a tag used by 50 questions
9 awarded

Other Badges

Share a link to a question later visited by 300 unique IP addresses
1 awarded
Participated in the private API beta; +2000 rep bonus
44 awarded